Kidney,is a refinery and the product of this plant is a fluid called urine produced by the kidneys and repelled through the urinary tract. In normal mode, the volume of urine is 2000-600 milliliters. Most urea materials are urea and sodium chloride, and other substances such as uric acid, creatinine, amino acids, ammonia and rare proteins, enzymes and purines form the remainder of nasal discharges. The urine also contains potassium, phosphate, sulfate and other sulfuric substances such as sulfide cysteine ​​and mercaptan. Hormones like Ketone steroids, estrogens, aldostrone, and pituitary gonadotropins and biogenic amines, catecholamines and serotonin metabolites are found naturally in the urine, indicating metabolic and endocrine status of the body. Therefore, studying and analyzing urine contents can help to determine the body’s condition, diagnosis of kidney disease, hemolytic disorders, metabolic diseases, and disorders of the urethra and bladder and the presence of infection. The morning urine sample, which is the thickest sample, is more suitable for urinalysis.


urinalysis part

The urinary biochemistry section, is one of the important diagnostic sections. In this section, more than one hundred different types of urinalysis can be done, each of which is done specifically to determine the causes of various diseases. Some of these tests require advanced devices for measuring, but urine analysis (UA) is the simplest type of test, including physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of the urine. So, for the purpose of this test, after the reception and sampling, the urine culture is performed on the request of the physician and the sample is examined and the color, odor, degree of transparency and specific gravity, and pH of the urine are reported, then using the tape Urine can be used to evaluate the presence of blood, protein, ketone, sugar and nitrite in the urine and report it in the form of + to +++. In the next step, urinary sediment is examined microscopically and the rate of RBC, WBC, urinary bacteria and epithelial cells are evaluated. The sample is also checked for cast, crystal, mucus and so on. Interpretation of urine sedimentation tests requires time, skill, training and work experience with different microscopic methods. A complete urine test (UA) is a simple but important test that sometimes provides this simple test to very important information for patient diagnosis. However, this test, if not correctly interpreted, can lead to a doctor’s misconduct.

Study of physical and chemical properties of urine


  • The natural color of the urine is pale yellow to amber, which is related to orchrome, orobulin, and uranium pigments. The reasons for changing the color of the urine are: urine concentration, food, drugs, metabolism products, urinary tract infection.
  • Some colors like red (in hematuria or porphyrynuria), black (such as alkaptonuria), orange (urine in urine), brownish yellow or brownish green (biliary pigments, especially bilirubin), milky color (high neutrophils, lipids And lymph in the urine) or blue to green (pseudomyoid infection) can be helpful in diagnosis.
  • Natural urine is usually clear, but may be due to precipitation of phosphate or urethane, semi-clear, semi-turbid, or turbid. The presence of white or red blood cells, epithelial cells, and bacteria also can be blurred or half-impacted in certain amounts. Mucus can also give a cloudy look to the urine.
  • Phosphate deposition (and sometimes carbonate) dissolves in alkaline urine with increasing acetic acid. In addition, amorphous phosphate crystals will be seen in the microscopic examination.
  • In addition to phosphates, leukocytes may form cloudy urine like phosphates, but in this case, after increasing the diluted acetic acid, the cloud remains intact. The presence of leukocytes is confirmed by microscopic examination of sedimentation.

Smell of urine

  • Natural urine has an aromatic aroma and its origin is not known. Bo is mainly important for sample selection. Bacterial contamination with urine, ammonia, stomach and inappropriate test is recommended. In abdominal disorder, the smell of urine is abnormal.

Urine volume

  • Measuring urine volume over time is valuable in clinical diagnosis. The average daily volume in a normal adult is from 1200 to 1500 ml (in a normal state of 600 to 2000 ml).
  • Urine volume is more than 2000 ml in 24 hours of polyurethane. Increased water intake, increased salt intake, increased protein intake, and some drugs like caffeine, alcohol, thiazide and glucose solutions increase urinary excretion.
    Diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus are two diseases that cause intense thirst and increased water intake. In diabetic skeletal muscle, polyurea is associated with a nocturia and urine volume increases to 15 liters per day.
  • Less than 500 milliliters of urine excretion in the oligurium day and complete anorexia urinary retention.


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