Sexual Hormones

Hormones are a mixture of chemicals that are produced in very small amounts in the body and have regulatory effects to maintain the natural state of the body. Reducing or increasing the amount of these hormones can cause some of the most important diseases in humans. Hormones secrete specific glands in the body. Sex hormones are mainly made up of cholesterol in the gonads (ovaries and testicles). These hormones are also produced in a small amount in other tissues, such as adrenal glands, pairs, liver, and the like. Sexual hormone imbalances can lead to various diseases such as precocious puberty, feminization syndromes, infertility, and lack of secondary sexual traits.

Female hormones

Female hormones are called hormones that contain steroids, estradiol and estrone, which are produced in the female body. This hormone promotes the growth of the reproductive system of the woman and the development of female traits such as breast enlargement in female and having a subtle female voice.

Estradiol (17-beta-estradiol)

Estradiol (E2) is produced in the ovary. Women have a follow-up mechanism for this hormone, so that the level of E2 reduces stimulation of the hypothalamus and gonadotropin releasing agents, which stimulates the pituitary and secretes FSH and LH hormones. The amount of this hormone reaches the maximum in the cycle of ovulation in the monthly cycle. In the diet, too little of this hormone is produced; about one-third of the estrogen in the testicles, and the rest of the testosterone and estrogen are converted to the peripheral tissues.

  • Estradiol is the most common estrogen in women before menopause.
  • Reduced levels of estradiol in ovarian failure, Turner syndrome, hypothyroidism, Stein-Lutal syndrome, menopause, anorexia nervosa, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypophysis, and hypogonadism.
  • Increased levels of estradiol in ovarian, testicular and adrenal tumors, early puberty in women, gynecomastia (femininity syndrome in men), and liver necrosis and cirrhosis.
  • Contraceptive pills and clomiphene reduce serum levels of E2.


Progesterone Progesterone is a hormone secreted in the small amount of the adrenocortical glands and more in the ovaries than in the yellow body. Progesterone stimulates the growth and restoration of the lining of the uterus and prepares the uterus to replace the fertilized egg.

After ovulation, the level of progesterone increases in the plasma; the yellow body produces a lot of progesterone and secretes.In case of fertilization and replacement of the fertilized egg in the uterus, the corpus luteum remains and will continue to produce progesterone in the first few weeks of pregnancy. Then the yellow body is replaced by a pair.

Clinical application of progesterone

  • Ensure the ovulation during the menstrual cycle
  • Investigating the causes of infertility
  • Study of the causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Permanent health assessment of progesterone in high risk pregnancies
  • Monitor the effect of progesterone therapy (progesterone is prescribed in the early stages of pregnancy to maintain pregnancy)
  • Examining some patients with adrenal insufficiency
  • Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and abortion


  • Increased progesterone levels after ovulation, pregnancy, ovarian cysts, adrenal glandular hyperlipidemia, hereditary adrenal hyperplasia, testicular tumors, ovarian carcinoma, and molar pregnancy.
  • Reduced progesterone levels in the emesis of preeclampsia, pregnancy toxicity, abortion, coupling failure, fetal death, ovarian neoplasm, amenorrhea, ovarian function and ectopic pregnancy.
  • Do not use supplements containing biotin for 12 hours before sampling.


Testosterone Testosterone is one of the most important androgen hormones that stimulates spermatogenesis and causes secondary sexual characteristics in men. This hormone acts in women as an estrogen precursor.

In women before menopause, more testosterone is produced in the ovaries and a small amount in the adrenal gland and peripheral tissues. But after menopause, its production in the ovary decreases.

Most testosterone levels in the blood are bound to the glubolin attached to the sex hormones (SHBG) and the amount of protein bound to the albumin, and a small amount is free.




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