The pancreas is a large gland located in the upper abdomen and behind the stomach. The pancreas is an interstitial gland that is secreted into the bloodstream, and is an exogenous gland that the enzymes and substances that secrete directly contribute to the intestinal environment and help digest proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
The pancreatic duct often drips through the common duct of the bile and sap into the duodenum (the intestine of the small intestine), often through the bile duct. Exogenous pancreatic secretions are controlled by the parasympathetic autonomic system, as well as secretion hormone and cholecystinokinin hormone. These hormones are secreted from the duodenal epithelium of the entero-endocrine after secretion of the gastric kismos to the duodenum. Pancreatic enzymes such as amylase, phospholipase, lipase, ribonuclease, and protease (such as trypsinogen, kimotropinsinogen and carboxy peptidase) and elastase help digestion and absorb food.
The production and releasing of intrinsic hormones is done by the islet cells called langerhans. The Langerhans cells have several important cell types; the alpha cells of the hormone secrete glucagon; the cells secrete the insulin hormone and are the most abundant cells in the langerhans; the hormone cells secrete somatostatin, this hormone by other glands The inside of the body is also secreted, and gamma cells or PPs produce pancreatic polypeptides that have self-regulating action and control the release of intracellular and extracorporeal pancreatic secretions.
Insulin is produced by combining 51 amino acids in the beta cells of the Langerhans Islands, located in the pancreas intravenous portion. Insulin is a peptide hormone composed of two peptide A and B sequences. The two chains are coupled with two di-sulfur bridges. Insulin is initially in the form of Peruvian Insulin, which is complex in mechanism and decomposes with the effect of protease enzymes and pseudocarboxy peptidase to proteins of insulin, insulin and peptide C. All three of these are clinically measurable.
Insulin is essential for the transfer and storage of glucose at the cellular level, and it increases the entry of glucose into fat and muscle cells. In liver cells, glucokinase activity increases and glycolysis rate increases. Insulin causes glycogen biosynthesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis. Insulin activates the synthesis of proteins and prevents them from breaking down.
- Type 1 diabetes (IDDM) is caused by the destruction of insulin secreting beta cells in the pancreas. These people do not have the ability to produce insulin, which increases blood glucose levels.
- Insulinoma is the most common tumor of the beta cells of the Langerhans Islands, which increases insulin and reduces blood glucose.
- Insulin testing can help diagnose insulinoma, study lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder, diabetes mellitus, and evaluate hypoglycemia in fasting conditions.
- Increased insulin levels in insulinoma, insulin resistance, Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, use of drugs such as corticosteroids, levodopa, birth control pills, fructose or galactose intolerance, and obesity.
C peptide or protein binding peptide is a protein that binds to alpha and beta chains. In the breakdown of the pronsulin molecule in the beta cells of the langerhans, molecules of the peptide C and insulin are obtained. Therefore, there is a strong correlation between serum insulin levels and C-levels of peptide production. After production and secretion of insulin and peptide C into the bloodstream, 50% of insulin is bound to the receptors in the initial passage from the liver and certain liver activities, such as inhibition of glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, etc., begin. Most insulin molecules that travel through the liver to the bloodstream connect with insulin receptors to perform their special functions, and the remaining molecules are excreted by the kidneys.
- Diagnosis of synthetic hypoglycemia; Differentiation of exogenous hypoglycemia (due to insulin infusion) from endogenous
- Evaluation of the function of beta cells in diabetes
- Examination of patients with diabetes (differentiation of type 1 diabetes and two) and diagnosis of insulin resistance syndrome
- Assessment of patients with insulinemia
In patients with insulinoma, the levels of insulin, prostavalen and C-peptide are high, while in patients with synthetic hypoglycemia, insulin levels are high, but the levels of prenazolin and C-peptide are low.
Increased levels of C peptide in insulinemia, pancreatic transplantation, renal failure, use of hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes or people with insulin resistance.
The adrenocortical glands are a pair of intrathecal tubes that are located on the kidneys of each tuber
5-7 grams weighs. Each gland consists of two parts: cortex and medulla, each of which secrete separate hormones. The presence of a cortical part is vital to the living organism and leads to extinction to the living organism. The cortical part consists of three layers.
One of the most important mineralocorticoids in humans is the reduction of sodium excretion from the urine, increased potassium excretion and hydrogen ion in the urine, and increased water absorption in the kidney and preventing the loss of water in the body. This hormone is important for maintaining blood pressure and volume. Aldosterone production is initially regulated by renin-angiotensin system. In this way, the effective reduction of renal blood flow stimulates the pressure-sensitive renal glomerular component to release Renin.
- This test is used to detect and distinguish primary primary aldosteronism from the secondary, which is commonly associated with the measurement of renin.
- Increasing aldosterone and low Renin levels are indicative of primary aldosteronism.
- Extreme sports and stress can stimulate the extracellular cortex and increase the production of aldosterone levels.
- The amount of aldosterone is affected by body, diet, pregnancy and daily changes.
- The patient’s position affects the level of aldosterone. Aldosterone levels increase in vertical position.
The main glucocorticoid cortisol, which forms 90-75% of the corticoids, affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Cortisol plays an important role in glucose metabolism and high blood sugar. This hormone is in the liver, anabolic and in the peripheral tissues of catabolic.
Cortisol disintegrates proteins and lipids and does not use glucose. This hormone has an anti-inflammatory effect and is involved in increasing body resistance in adverse physical and environmental conditions, such as disease, microbial infection, emotional and emotional shock, stress, heat and cold.
Cortisol levels are regulated by the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary and stimulates the adrenal cortex. The cortisol hormone secretion in the daytime is oscillating, which is the highest in the early hours of the morning (8-6 in the morning) and is at its lowest in midnight (11 nights).
- Cortisol is helpful in distinguishing primary and secondary adrenal defects and diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome.
- Sampling should be done after a quiet and comfortable sleep at 8 to 6 o’clock in the morning.
- The results of measuring cortisol levels at 8:00 am and 4:00 pm often indicate that it is one third to two thirds of the morning at 4:00 pm.
- An increase in cortisol levels in Cushing’s brain, ECT-producing ectopic tumors, stress, Cushing’s syndrome, adrenal or extra carcinoma carcinoma, hyperthyroidism, and obesity.
- Reduced cortisol levels in adrenal hyperplasia, Addison’s disease, decreased pituitary activity, and hypothyroidism.