Hematology contains wide range of tests, such as blood, hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, hematocrit, so on and their disorders. Due to having skilled personnel, using advanced and modern devices and technologies, having daily qualitative controls, Pasteur laboratory is one of the most valid site in diagnosis blood diseases.
Blood, is a red liquid which composes 7- 8 % of the body weight and consists of cellular and plasmatic parts. Red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and plasma are as blood cells. Plasma consists of fat, protein, minerals, hormones and coagulation factors.
CBC, is a common test and is done along with other tests. In this test, count of the red and white blood cells, platelets and other blood components are measured. Anemia, infection, bleeding or cancer can be diagnosed by this test.
Red blood cells (RBC)
- RBC consists of hemoglobin. These cells carry oxygen through the body and tissue. RBC stays alive for about 20 days.
- 6- 7.4 per million in microliter is a normal range. This level is less in women and more in children.
- Bleeding, malnutrition, iron and vitamin B12 deficiency, RBC hemolysis, cancer or kidney disorders reduce level of RBC.
White blood cells (WBC)
- WBC protects the body against infection and viruses. 4000- 10000 in per milliliter blood is a normal range in adults and children above the 2.
- Reduction of the WBC is called leukopenia.
- Chronic infections, malnutrition, deficiency of immune system and HIV reduce level of WBC.
- Increasing amount of the WBC is called leukocytosis, and is indication of infection, inflammation and allergy.
- Hemoglobin, is a protein which carries oxygen in the blood and is an indication of level of anemia.
- 12- 15 per gram in deciliter in a normal range.
- Hematocrit represents the percentage of red blood cells relative to the total blood volume and should be investigated with other blood factors such as RBC and hemoglobin.
- The normal amount of hematocrit is 42 to 52 percent for men and 35 to 46 percent for women.
- Platelets play a role in blood coagulation, so that their low levels slow down blood coagulation and prolong the bleeding time.
- The normal amount of platelet is between 150,000 and 450,000 per ml of blood for adults.
- Viral infections such as mononucleosis, measles, hepatitis, taking some medications such as acetaminophen, immune deficiency, leukemia or leukemia, chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduce platelets
- Some cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation of the intestines and lupus, iron deficiency anemia, hemolytic anemia, etc. increase platelets
MCV: represents the average volume of red blood cells. Its natural content is 80 to 100. If the MCV value is too normal, it means that the red blood cells are larger than normal, typically this occurs in anemia due to vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency. When the MCV value is less than normal, the red blood cells are smaller than normal, which can be seen in some cases, such as iron deficiency in the blood. In thalassemia, the MCV also decreases.
MCH: The average weight of hemoglobin in a blood cell red blood cell. Its natural content is 31-27 pico grams.
MCHC: The amount of hemoglobin concentration in a given volume of red blood cells. . Its natural content is 32-36 g / dl.
RDW: The value of this statement indicates the degree of uniformity or lack of uniformity of red blood cell size. The smaller the number is, the red blood cells are one-dimensional in size, and conversely, if this number is larger, it is a sign that the size of the red blood cells is not uniform. Typically, when we are suspected of anisocytosis and polycyclicosuclease, we will examine this index. The normal amount of RDW is 15-5 / 11%, when it increases, it represents anisositosis.
MPV: Indicates the size of the platelets. Its natural value is 12-5 / 6 fl. To interpret the MPV, we must consider platelet count.